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Micro-implants are increasingly popular in clinical orthodontics to create skeletal anchorage. The mode of anchorage facilitated by these implant systems has a unique characteristic owing to their temporary use, which results in a transient, albeit absolute anchorage. The foregoing properties together with the recently achieved simple application of these screws has increased their popularity, establishing them as a necessary treatment option in complex cases that would have otherwise been impossible to treat. The aim of this comprehensive review is to present and discuss the development, clinical uses, benefits, and drawbacks of the miniscrew implants used to obtain a temporary but absolute skeletal anchorage for orthodontic applications.
In general, the various miniscrew implant systems can be used in cases where the support of dental units is quantitatively or qualitatively compromised, as in partially edentulous patients or periodontally involved teeth. In addition, an absolute indication is the requirement for minimum undesired reactive forces.
Using miniscrew implants as anchorage for tooth movements that could not otherwise be achieved, such as in patients with insufficient teeth for the application of conventional anchorage, in cases where the forces on the reactive unit would generate adverse side effects, in patients with a need for asymmetrical tooth movements in all planes of space, and finally in some cases as an alternative to an orthognathic surgical procedure. During the past few years, the application of miniscrew implants has been expanded to include a wide array of cases, including the correction of deep over bites, closure of extraction spaces, correction of a canted occlusal plane, alignment of dental midlines, extrusion of impacted canines, extrusion and uprighting of impacted molars, molar intrusion, maxillary molar distalization, distalization of mandibular teeth, en-masse retraction of anterior teeth, molar mesialization, upper third molar alignment, intermaxillary anchorage for the correction of sagittal discrepancies, and correction of vertical skeletal discrepancies that would otherwise require an orthognathic surgical procedure.